Land Survey
The practice of surveying land is an integral part of defining human spaces. While the tools, techniques, and registration of property boundaries have changed, the basic human instinct to define personal territory remains unchanged. As the world's population has increased, so has the frequency and intensity of land disputes. The proper survey, mapping, and recording of land parcels can minimize or negate these challenges. The survey team is responsible for assessing parcels so that engineering designs can be prepared, performing construction staking to ensure proper construction, completing as-built surveys to document the completed facility, and providing legal descriptions of real property for tax and title registration.

The survey team is the first in and last out during the construction of a project. As technology has advanced, survey teams now use an array of complex digital and electronic measurement tools, including global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and computer-aided design (CAD) software programs to document and record property ownership.

Land surveying encompasses a variety of services, including:

 Construction Staking
 Boundary Surveys
 Elevation Certificates
 Topographic Surveys
 Route Surveys
 Horizontal and Vertical Control
 Cross Sections
 As-built Surveys
 Easement Documents
 Condominium Mapping

Civil Engineering
Embodying a wide range of services and disciplines, civil engineering is the process by which land is studied and prepared for development. While the tools and practices have evolved over the years, the basic need for solid foundations on which to build remains.

Whether studying the properties of soil or staging a parcel of land for a skyscraper, each development starts with the process of site development. An essential component of site development is the proper grading and layout of utilities required to support the planned facility. Roads and bridges, rail and transit lines, and buildings of all types require the services of a site civil engineer.

P&C specializes in site civil engineering for a variety of public and private land development services, including:

 Utility Layout
 Site Grading and Earthwork
 Site Storm Water Drainage
 Storm Sewer Design
 Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plans(SWPPP)
 Site and Street Paving
 Hydraulic and Hydrologic Assessments
 HEC Modeling
 Stormwater Conveyance
 Floodplain Reclamation Studies and Alteration Permitting
 Water and Wastewater Distribution Systems
 Lake and Detention Pond Design
 Federal Emergency Management Agency(FEMA) Permitting

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